Jennings, J.G., The Vedntic Buddhism of the Buddha

Motilala Banarsidass Rep. 1974 [original London, 1947]

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CHAPTER 3


THE SEARCH FOR ENLIGHTENMENT


Jtaka Commentary, Introduction (Nidana-katha), ,7N, 66.


          § 1. [JN, p. 66.] Having entered Rjagaha he begged food [from house to house] continuously ... Footnote Then the officers of the king Footnote went to the palace and described him, saying: 'Lord (deva), a being of such and such appearance is begging food in the city. We do not know whether he is a divine-spirit (devo), a man (manusso), a snake-demon (ngo), or a bird-spirit (supao) Footnote Then the king (rj),9 standing on the palace-roof 10 and seeing the Great One (Mah purisa), wondered and commanded his officers, saying: 'Go, sirs, (bhane),11 and, observe if-this person is non-human (a-manusso), he will vanish when he leaves the city-that is, if a spirit (devat)12 he will disappear through the air, and if a snake-demon he will sink into the earth, but if a man he will eat the food which he has obtained.


          § 2. [JN, p. 66 cd.] Meanwhile the Great One collected alms of mingled food, and when he saw that there was sufficient for his support he left the city by the gate Footnote through which he had entered. [#019] ## Sitting down with his face

towards the east,1 in the shadow of the Padava hill (Paoava pabbata chaydya), he began to eat the food:

          The royal officers returned- and told the king what they had heard. Footnote On hearing the words of his messengers the king in haste went in from the city, and drew, near to the Bodhisatta. . . . Footnote The Bodhisatta said: `Great King (mahdrdja), for me there is nothing in wealth or in sense-pleasures, which defile (kilesa-kdmehi) I have mired from the world seeking complete enlightenment (para-nbadhitn patthayanto).'. . ‘Truly’, said the king, thou wilt Buddho bavasissati enlightened (Buddho bhavissasi). Footnote After attaining enlightennment (Buddlta-bhatena pana te) come first to my kingdom.'

          § 3. [JN r p. 66 cd.] This is here stated briefly. The full account, I will sing of the Retirement, how the Clear-Seeing the world]', may be found by referring to the Pabbaj sutta Footnote with its commentary Footnote (aha-kathya).


(ii) SEEKING THE GOOD


          § 4. [JN, p. 66 cd.] Then the future Buddha. .. proceeded on his journeying. Then joining [first] Alra Klma14 and [subsequently] the disciple of Rma (Rma puttam), and having mastered their highest attainments Footnote (sampattiyo nibbattetv); he saw that this was not the way to enlightenment (nayam maggo bodhiy ti), [JN, 41 and abandoned the method of attainment by trances (samdpatti-analatpkaritvd).[#20]


          §5 Sutta-Piiaka, Majjhima-Nikjya, Sutta 26 (Ariya pariyesana-Sutta).

          [PTS, i, p. x63-] `Pursuing the good, Footnote seeking the supreme path of tranquillity (santi-vara-padam), I drew near to where Alra Klma3 was and addressed him thus: "Friend Klma (avuso Kij&ma), I desire to lead the holy life (brahma-cariyatn) under this [thy] system and discipline Footnote (dhamma-vinaye).” When I had thus spoken, mendicant brothers, Alra Klma thus replied: "Let my venerable friend (dymma) remain. Such is this system (dhaminv) [p. 164] that in no long time an intelligent man can learn, for himself Footnote (saysrn), realize, and having attained (upasampad) abide in his teacher's practice as his own." . . Then 'l said to Alra Klma: "How far dost thou ... declarete this system (to proceed],?" Thereupon Alra Klma declared Footnote [that it proceeded to], the realm, x of nothingness Footnote (akiñcaññyatam}. . . . Footnote Then quickly I in no long time learnt for myself, realized and having attained abode in that system. Then I drew near to Alra Klma and ... addressed him thus: "Friend Kilama,,is this as far as thou ... teachest this system?" "Friend, this is as far as I . . . [#21] teach this system." "Friend, I also have learnt this system for myself. ." "It is an advantage to us, friend, it is again tea us, who find such a venerable companion in holy-living.... [p. x65.] Thou art as I, I am as thou. Come, friend, let us together lead this company (galam)." Thus Alra Klma, my teacher, set up me, his pupil, as completely equal to himself, and honoured me with great honour. And then I thought: "This system conducting to the realm of nothingness does not lead to . . . Footnote tranquillity, highest knowledge, full enli,ghtenment, Peace Footnote (nibbandya)." Then, mendicant brothers, finding that system insufficient and becoming indifferent (nibbijja) to it, I departed. Footnote

          'And pursuing the good, seeking the supreme path of tranquillity, I drew near to where Uddaka6 the disciple? of Rma was.... 8 Then I said to Uddaka the disciple of Rama: "How far dost thou . . . declare this system [to proceed]?"' Thereupon Uddaka declared that it proceeded to the state of neither perception nor non-perception9 (nevasailftdnasann`-dyatuna).. . . [p. x66.] Then quickly I in no long time learnt for myself, realized and having attained abode in that system. 10 Then I drew near to Uddaka and ... addressed him thus: "Friend, is this as far as thou ... teachest this system?" "Friend, this is as far as I ... teach this system." "Friend, I also have learnt this system for myself. . . ." "It is an advantage to us, friend, it is a gain to us, who find such a venerable companion in holy-living.... Thou art as Rma, Rma was as thou. Come, friend, lead this company." Thus Uddaka, my companion in holy-living, set me up in the place of his teacher. And then I thought: "This system does not lead to ... Peace (nibbdndya)." . . . Then I departed. Footnote [#22]

          'And pursuing the good, seeking the supreme path to tranquillity, I journeyed by stages among the Magadhas and came to where Uruvela4 the army-township Footnote (send"=nigamo) was. [p. X67.] There I saw a delightful spot Footnote and a fair grove, and a clear flowing river, Footnote delightful and easy of approach, and finally a village near by in which to beg food:8 Then I thought: ". . .9 Truly here is all that is needed by a clansman (kula puttassa) Footnote intent on effort." Footnote There I settled, mendicant brothers, here being everything needed for effort.

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(iii) THE GREAT EFFORT

          § 6. Jataka Commentary, Introduction (Nidana-kathd), ,3'N, p. 67.       -

          [JN, p. 67.] 'When desirous of undertaking the Great Effort (maha-padhanam) ... ,14 he went to Uruvel,15 and saying `Truly delightful is this spot', he abode there and undertook the Great Efffort. Footnote [#23]


          § 7. [JN, p. 67 cd.] Then those five recluses Footnote (panca pabbajit) headed by Kondañña, begging alms of food through villages, towns; and royal cities (gma-nigama-rjadhnsu), met the Bodhisatta there. And during six years, while he undertook the Great Effort, they remained with him doing him all manner of services, sweeping out the. hermitage and so on, [all the while] thinking ‘Now he will become enlightened (idani buddho bhavissati), now he will become enlightened!’ And the Bodhisatta, thinking ‘I will perform the uttermost austerities (dukkara-karikam), lived upon single grains of sesamum or rice Footnote or such and even practised complete abstention from food.... Footnote By this fasting he became utterly emaciated; his golden-coloured body became dark.... Footnote One day at. the edge of his place of exercise Footnote (canka-mana-A0#,Yam) during a trance of suppressed breathing8 (appanakam jhnamayanto) he was overcome by violent pain and fell unconscious.... Footnote When the Bodhisatta recovered consciousness and raised himself: ... Footnote and the Great One's austerity for these six years was like time spent in making a knot Footnote in the air (kase ganlhi-karanakdlo viya); and thinking 'Truly this austerity is not the way Footnote to enlightenment (ayam dukkarakdrikd nama bodhdya maggo na hotf ti), Footnote he went through the [#024] township and villages begging for ordinary food and living upon it.

          § 8. [JN, p.’67 cd.] Then the band of five mendicants (panca-vaggiya bhikkhiz) thought: ‘He was not able even by the austerity of six years to reach all-knowledge (sabbaññtam palivijjhitum nasakkki). [JN, p. 68.] How is it possible for him to do so now that he goes through, the villages begging and taking ordinary, food? He is defeated. in the Effort; for us to look for,, benefit from him is as if one should think to wash one’s head in a dew-drop. What is he to us (kim no imina ti) ?’Then taking their robes and begging-bowls they left the Great One; and going eighteen leagues away they entered Isipatana.


(See Appendix C .containing texts supplementary to this chapter.)