Jennings, J.G., The Vedntic Buddhism of the Buddha

Motilala BanarsidassRep. 197 [original London, 1947]

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CHAPTER 4


 THE GREAT ENLIGHTENMENT


(i) LEGEND


Jtaka Commentary, Introduction (Nidana-katha,) JN, 68 ff


         § 1. [JN, p. 68.] At that time at Uruvel, Footnote the General’s township (Senani-nigame), Footnote there lived a young woman named Sujt, Footnote born in the family of the General who was a landholder there. On reaching womanhood she had vowed to a certain banyan-tree (nigrodha-rukkhe) thus, ‘If I obtain a husband of my own rank, and my first babe is a son, I will make to thee a yearly offering. . .’ Footnote and her prayer: had been fulfilled. . . . Footnote And on the full-moon day of Viskh (viskhpunnama-divase) she rose early and caused eight cows to be milked. ... Footnote She took the milk, and, having poured it into a new bowl, with her own hands kindled a fire and began the cooking.... Footnote [JN, p. 69.] Then Sujt5 said to her slave-girl Punni (Punna-dasim): ‘Dear Punni, the spirit (devata) is very favourably disposed to us to-day. ... Footnote Run quickly and tend the holy place.’. .

        § 2. [JN, p. 69 cd.] Now the future Buddha (Bodhisatta) ... Footnote when the night was ended ... came early in the morning and sat at the foot of the tree.... Footnote Then Punni coming there saw the future Buddha seated at the foot of the tree turned towards the east, ... Footnote and thought ‘Our deity (devata) to-day indeed has issued from the tree and is sitting to receive our offering in his own hand.’ Then she ran back in haste and told Sujt. Sujt hearing was delighted and cried ‘Be thou to me from this day as an eldest daughter.’. . . Footnote She then fetched [#026] a golden bowl ... Footnote raised the cooking-vessel and poured out the milk-rice. The milk-rice rolled from the vessel as water from, a lotus-leaf, and filled the bowl exactly. Having placed over the bowl another dish, also of gold, and wrapped a cloth round them, she put on all her ornaments, and carrying the bowl upon her head, proceeded to the foot-of the banyan-tree. Seeing the future, Buddha she was delighted, think-ing him to be the tree-spirit (rukkha-devata ti), and as she advanced she made obeisance.... Footnote Sujta then placed the bowl, of milk-rice in the hand of the Great One (Mah purisassa), and the Great One looked at Sujta. Then realizing his condition she made obeisance, and said: ‘Sir (ayya), accept my offering to thee, and go whitherso-ever thou desirest. May thy wish prosper as mine has done!’-So saying she departed.... Footnote

        § 3- [JN, P. 70.] Then Footnote the future Buddha risingofrom his seat departed from the tree keeping his right side towards it, and taking the bowl went to the bank of the river Nerajara.8 ... 9 The bathing-place there is called the Supatihita10 landing stage. Having placed the bowl upon the bank he descended into the water and bathed.... Footnote Then having sat down with his face to the east, Footnote he made all the thick sweet milk-rice into forty-nine pellets . .. and ate it. . . Footnote He took his midday rest in a grove of blossoming sal-trees on the bank of the river.

         § 4. [JN, p. 70] That evening he proceeded ... towards the Bodhi-tree (tree of Enlightenment) . . . [JN, p. 7I.] Turning his [#027] back to the Bodhi-tree, with his face towards the east... Footnote he sat cross-legged.... Footnote So he sat meditating on the Ten Perfections (dasa pramiyo). [JN, p. 72.] : . . Footnote ... . Footnote [JN, p. 75.] Before the sun had.set the Great One put to flight the army of Mra. And then . .’. he acquired in the first watch of the night the knowledge of previous existences, in the middle watch of the night the divine vision, and in the last watch of the night the knowledge of the causative-process. . . [JN, p:. 76.] Thus he attained omniscience (sabbaññta-ña). ... Footnote


 (ii) THE ENLIGHTENMENT: COMMENTARIAL ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST

DAYS OF BUDDHAHOOD


 § 5: (Santike-nidana or Recent Period) Footnote [JN, p- 77.] ... Footnote And the Bodhisatta sat there attaining immeasurable heights of thought (sam-pattiyo) for the seven days with reference to which it is said: Then [#028] the Blessed One sat ‘cross-legged continuously for seven days and experienced the bliss of liberation (vimutti-sukha paisavedi) ... Footnote

         § 6. [JN, p. 78.] Then, having spent four weeks near the’Bo-tree,he proceeded in the fifth week to the Goatherds’ banyan-tree (yena Ajapla-nigrodho) Footnote and sat there meditating on the Law (dhammam)- and experiencing the bliss of liberation. ... . Footnote

         § 7. [JN, p. 8o.] When he had spent a week [the fifth]’at that spot, he proceeded to the Mucalinda [tree] (Mucalihdam agamsi), and there he passed a week.... Footnote

        § 8:, [JN, p. 8o cd.] Thence he went on to the Rajayatane [tree] Footnote (Mjuyatanatp upasamkamt), and there also he sat [dunnk the seventh week] experiencing the bliss of-liberation. Thus seven weeks passed,

 ... Footnote Then the Supremely Enlightened rose and returned thence to the Goatherds’ banyan-tree. . . .[#029]


(iii) VINAYA ACCOUNT


Vinaya-Piaka, Mah-vagga, Footnote Khandhaka 1, i-v.


        § 9. [MV, I. i. x:] At that time the Buddha, the Blessed One (bhagav), Footnote was staying at Uruvela on the bank of the Neranjara at the foot of the tree of Enlightenment having just become All-enlightened. Then the Blessed One sat cross-legged continuously for seven days at the foot of the tree of Enlightenment feeling the bliss of liberation. -

         § 10. [i. 2.] Then the Blessed One during the first watch of the night thought over the causative-process Footnote forward and reversed.... Footnote Thus there is origination (samudayo) of this whole aggregation of sorrow’.... ‘Thus there is cessation (nirodho) of this whole aggrega-tion of sorrow.’[i: 3.] Then indeed the Blessed One having under-stood this matter (attha) at that time breathed forth this cry (udnam): Footnote



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When (separate-)natures (dhamma) Footnote , truly are manifested, (ptu-bhavanti) Footnote to the strenuous contemplative holy-man (brahmanassa- ),3

Then all his doubts vanish, because he understands nature that has a cause (sa-hetu-dhamma)’. Footnote

§ 11. [i- 4.] Then again the Blessed One during the Middle watch of the night thought over the causative process.... [i. 5.] Then indeed the Blessed One. . . breathed forth this cry:

‘When (separate-)natures truly are manifested to the strenuous contemplative holy-man”

Then all his doubts vanish, because he has known the destruction of the bases (khayam paccayam).’ Footnote

        § 12 [i. 6.] Then indeed the Blessed One during the third watch of the night thought over the causative process.... 7 [i. 7. Then indeed the Blessed One ... breathed forth this cry

        ‘When (separate-)natures truly are manifested to the strenuous contemplative holy-man,

        He stands and scatters the army of Mra [the Tempter] Footnote even as ‘the sun- lighting the heavens.’

         § 13- [ii. 1.] Then the Blessed One at the end of seven days rose from that contemplation (samdimh), and went from the foot.of the tree of Enlightenment towards the Goatherds’ banyan-tree, and having reached it he sat cross-legged at the foot of the Goatherds’

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banyan-tree for seven days continuously, experiencing the bliss of liberation., [ii. 2.] . . Footnote [ii. 3-]Then the Blessed One ... breathed forth this cry:

‘The holy-man (Brahmano) whose nature is unsinful, not harsh, unstained (ni-kasvo), self-restrained (yat-atto),

Who has mastered Knowledge and follows the holy-life, he is rightly (dhammena)5 being holy (Brdhmano)6 should announce the holy-teaching (Brahma-vadam); ,

        Who has no pride Footnote whatever in the world (1oke).’


        § 14. [iii. 1.] Then the Blessed One at the end of seven days ... went to the Mucalinda-tree. and sat cross-legged at the foot -of the Mucalinda-tree for seven days continuously . ; [iii. 4-] Then the Blessed One ... breathed forth this cry:

‘Blissful (sukho) is the solitude of the happy one (tutthaisa) who has learnt the Law and comprehends;

        Blissful is unhurtfulness Footnote in the world, self-restraintie towards ‘ living things;

Blissful is non-desire (vi-rdgatd) in the world, the transcending of sense-pleasures (kamaanam), Footnote

        The putting away of the conceit “I am” (asmi-manassa)-this indeed is the highest bliss.’


         § 15- [iv. z.] Then the Blessed One at the end of seven days ... went to the Rjyatana-tree and sat cross-leged at the foot of the Rjyatana-tree for seven days continuously- . . . Footnote [v. z.] Then the Blessed One returned to the Goatherds’banyan-tree....


(iv) NIKAYA ACCOUNTS


§ 16. Sutta-Piaka, Majjhima-Nikya, Sutta 26 (Ariya pariyesana Sutta). Footnote

        [PTS,, i, p. 167:] ‘There [at Uruveli] I settled, mendicant brothers, here being everything needed for effort. And being myself subjected

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 to earthly-existence I perceived the wretchedness of what is subjected to earthly-existence, and seeking the supreme peace of Nirvana, (nibbdnatn) Footnote which is not affected by earthly-existence, I attained the supreme peace of a self-extinction Footnote (nibbdnam) not affected by Footnote earthly-existence. Being myself subjected to decay, . .6 to disease ... to death . . . to grief . . . (and) to defilement . . .and seeking the supreme peace of Nirvana which is not affected by decay ... disease. . death ... grief ... (and) defilement, I attained the supreme peace of a self-extinction not affected by decay ... disease ... death8 ... grief ... . . (and) defilement:

        ‘And the knowledge (ñnam) now as a thing see arose in me: “My liberation (vimutti) is established, Footnote separate-existence (jti) Footnote is terminated Footnote here; there is not now, survival (puna-bbhvo) Footnote

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§17 Majjhima Nikya Maya, Sutta 36 (Mah-Saccaka Sutta).

        [Pts I, 249] ‘... Footnote Then I turned my mind to. the knowledge of the destruction of the taints_ (svana). Footnote I knew verily (yatha-bhUtam) the Four Truths] Footnote : “This is sorrow....... This is the origin. “This is the cessation of sorrow”. “This is the path leading to the cessation: of sorrow”. I knew. verily: the taints (sav)....... This is the origination of the This is the cessation of the taints” . . . “This is the path to the cessation of the taints.”

        ‘When thus I perceived and understood, my mind (cittam) was liberated6 from the taint of lust? (kdm-asavd), . . . the taint of individuallity (bhav-asava),8 and ... the taint of ignorance Footnote (avijj-d3avd):;-and when I was liberated there arose in me the knowledge of my liberaion. I knew: “Separate-existence ( jti)10 is ended,ii (khn); the (brahrna__ cariyam) is lived Footnote what must be done is done Footnote [#034] there is nothing [individual] beyond this [existence] (n’aparam itthattaya)”. Footnote

        ‘This was the third knowledge (vijj),, which I gained in the last watch of the night. Ignorance was driven away, knowledge had arisen; thus it is with one who abides diligent (appamattassa), ardent and firm.’ ... Footnote


§ 18. Anguttara-Nikaya, Tika-nipata (the Threes), Sutta 134. (The three characteristics of Individuality.) Footnote

        [i] ‘Whether Right-farers Footnote arise, mendicant- brothers, or do not arise, it remains a principle Footnote (dhtu), a foundation of nature, a certainty of nature, that all individuality (samkhr) Footnote is transitory (a-nicca). A Right-farer awakens to and arrives at Footnote this, and, having awakened to and arrived at it, he proclaims .’ . . and makes clear that all indi-[#035]viduality is transitory. ,[2] Whether Right-farers arise, mendicant brothers, or do not arise, it remains a principle, a foundation of nature, a certainty of nature, that all individuality is sorrowful (dukkh). A Right-farer awakens to and arrives at this ... and makes clear that all individuality is sorrowful. [3] Whether Right-farers arise, mendicant brothers, or do not arise, it remains a principle, a foundation of nature, a. certainty of, nature, that all separate-natures are without permanent-self (sabbe dhamma an-att). Footnote A Right-farer awakens to and arrives at this ... and makes clear that all separate-natures are without permanent-self.’

(See Appendix D containing texts supplementary to this chapter; also Appendix Bc (Patieca-samuppada.)