Chapter 1: Food - An Overview

1.1 Introduction

      Humans are a species (sapiens) belonging to the genus Homo that appeared around 250,000 years ago in East Africa and migrated to different parts of the world starting around 70,000 years ago.1 All living animals (including humans) go through a cycle. After being born they grow and most reproduce (some more than once) to start the next generation before they die. Food plays a very critical role in this cycle. It is needed for growth and the quality of food consumed affects the characteristics of the off-springs that constitute the subsequent generation.
      Humans are singular in the animal kingdom in the sense that they view food as more than just the survival of the species. For humans food consumption is a so-cial and pleasurable activity. Selective breeding of plants and animals, processing of food for either preservation or immediate consumption, cooking to make it more palatable and to enhance the sensory perceptions has been a major preoccu-pation of the human race for a long time.
Cooking is both an art as well a science. Appreciating this requires an under-standing of food and is the objective of this book. This chapter gives a broad over-view of food so as put the focus of the book in a proper perspective.
     The outline of the chapter is as follows. We start with a discussion of the main role of food in humans – to provide energy and chemicals needed for growth and proper body functioning. This involves the digestion process of humans and is discussed briefly in Section 1.3. Section 1.4 looks at the different manners humans consume food. One of these is the cooking food and this is discussed further in Section 1.5. There are many aspects to food and these have been studied by re-searchers from many disciplines. In Section 1.7 we discuss some of these so as to highlight the focus of the book against this broad background. Section 1.7 deals with the scope and focus of the book and, Section 1.8 describes the structure of the book. We conclude with brief outline of the chapters in Section 1.9.

1.2 Role of Food

Every living animal needs various kinds of nutrients for growth and well being.2 1 The word homo is Latin for “human” and the adjective sapiens is Latin for “wise” or “intelli-gent”. The naming (using Latin) and the classification of all living objects on the planet are dis-cussed in Chapter 2. 2 Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are referred to as macronutrients and, minerals and vitamins are referred to as micronutrients. 2 1. Carbohydrates: Primary energy sources (for fuel) for humans 2. Proteins: Energy sources as well as performing two other functions – (i) tissue growth, maintenance and repair and (ii) physiological roles 3. Fats: Primary energy sources (or fuel). Fats account for 15 – 30% of body weight 4. Vitamins: Vitamins are organic chemicals needed in small amounts to maintain proper health. 5. Minerals: Mineral are inorganic elements that the body needs in small amounts to maintain proper health. 6. Water: Water accounts for 70% of body weight These are discussed further in Chapter 3. The process through which this is achieved is shown in Figure 1.1 and involves digestion and absorption. Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components (nutrients) that are absorbed into the blood stream to be transported to various parts of the body. FOOD NUTRIENTS ENERGY AND CHEMICALS DIGESTION ABSORPTION Fig. 1.1 Transformation of food to produce energy and chemicals

1.3 Human Digestive System

Digestive systems take many forms.3 The digestive systems of animals are complex systems involving many organs. A simplified characterisation of the human digestive system is given in Figure 1.2.4 MOUTH STOMACH SMALL INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE FAECES (SOILD) URINE (LIQUID) FOOD BOLUS CHYME Fig. 1.2 A simplified characterisation of the human digestive system 3 There is a fundamental distinction between internal and external digestion. External digestion is more primitive, and most fungi still rely on it. In this process, enzymes are secreted into the environment surrounding the organism, where they break down an organic material, and some of the products diffuse back to the organism. 4 There many other organs (such as liver, pancreas, etc.) that play important roles (e.g., liver acts as a filter). A more detailed characterisation would involve further decomposition of each organ (e.g., the large intestine is decomposed into three parts – cecum, colon and rectum). 3 A brief description of the processes taking place in different organs and the terms used in Figure 1.2 is as follows: Mouth • Mechanical digestion: Due to chewing action • Saliva (an enzyme) starts the digestion of starch Bolus • Small round mass which is transported from the mouth to the stomach through oesophagus Stomach • Mechanical digestion: Due to muscular contractions • Gastric juice (hydrochloric acid and pepsin – an enzyme) starts the protein digestion • Optimum pH and temperature for pepsin to kill the many microorganisms ingested with the food Chyme • Output of stomach is in a semi-liquid form that is transported to the small intestine Small Intestine • Bile emulsifies fats to allow absorption • When chyme is fully digested the nutrients are absorbed in the blood (through transfer across membrane)5 Large Intestine • Digestion due to the actions of gut bacteria which break down some of the substances not broken down in the small intestine. • Absorption of the nutrients resulting from the breakdown. • Absorption of water from the bolus and storage of faeces (such as cellulose and other waste products) until it can be egested

1.4 Foods Consumed by Humans

Humans are unique in terms of the diversity of food they eat as opposed to other species which have fairly restrictive diet.6 A variety of species from all the five 5 Blood containing the absorbed nutrients is carried away from the small intestine to the liver for filtering, removal of toxins (waste product) and nutrient processing in other parts of the body. 4 kingdoms of living objects7 are part of human diet. The main ones are either plantbased or animal-based. Also humans learnt to grow and process food either for immediate consumption or to preserve food for later use.8 Some foods are eaten uncooked whilst others are after cooking (to enhance the taste, aroma, texture, etc.). As a result humans consume food in many different ways as indicated in Figure 1.3.9 PROCESS PRESERVE CONSUME UNCOOKED CONSUME COOKED CONSUME UNCOOKED CONSUME COOKED FOOD Fig. 1.3 Food Processing, Preservation and Consumption by Humans

1.5 Cooking

Cooking is an invention of homo-sapiens which allowed them to transform natural, edible objects into cuisine. It was started by ancestors of homo-sapiens learning to control fire and discovering that roasted meat tasted better than raw meat. This in turn led to the creation of utensils (clay pots, metal pots, etc.), the concept of the kitchen and the birth of written and oral guidelines to formalize cooking. The effect of this was that food changed from a practical necessity into an indicator of social standing and religious and political identity. Cooking Methods This deals with the different methods (or techniques) of cooking using heat (such as roasting, baking, boiling, stewing, etc) and non-heat methods (such as drying, 6 Some animals only eat meat (e.g., lions and tigers) whilst others eat only certain plant material (e.g., koalas that only eat the tender leaves from selective eucalyptus trees). 7 The five kingdoms are: (i) Animalia [made up of animals], (ii) Plantae [made up of plants], (iii) Protista [made up of protists – single-celled creatures invisible to the naked human eye], (iv) Fungi [made up of mushrooms, moulds, yeast, lichen, etc.] and, (v) Monera [made up several types of bacteria]. These are discussed further in Chapter 2. 8 Food preservation is discussed in Chapter 5. 9 A taxonomy to classify the different kinds of food consumed by human is given in Chapter 2. 5 curing, salting, etc.). The application of heat to a food transforms it, thus changing its flavour, texture, appearance, and nutritional properties.10 The science of cooking is an important part of the science of food. This issue is discussed further in Chapters 5 and 6. Cooking Styles Cooking style, known as culinary art, generally requires the selection, measurement and combining ingredients in an ordered procedure, to achieve the desired end result.11 Different societies have developed unique styles of cooking leading to a plethora of cooking styles around the world.12 Comment: Cooking methods deal more with the science of cooking whilst cooking styles deals with the art of cooking. Cuisine Cuisine can be defined as the set of cooking traditions, preferences, and practices that evolved over time and specific to a society, culture or region.13 It is often named after the region or place where its underlining culture is present and primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Each style of cuisine imparts a special taste, flavour and/or smell, to a particular food item to increase its appeal for consumption.

1.6 Study of Food

There are many aspects to food that they have been studied from researchers from a wide variety of disciplines. There literature on each is vast and we discuss briefly a few of them.

1.6.1 Food Chain

The food chain (starting at the farm and ending at the table for consumption) is a complicated process.14 In the case of plant food it involves cultivating the field 10 Archaeological evidence of Homo sapiens eating roasted food dates back to over 400,000 years. Cooking requiring the boiling of water in a container dates back to 10,000 BC with the introduction of pottery. 11 Culinary history deals with the origins and development of food stuffs, equipment, and techniques of cooking. 12 Style also deals with the presentation of the cooked (or uncooked) food. 13 This topic is discussed in detail in Chapter 21. 14 A commonly used expression is "from field to fork". 6 (tilling and use of fertilisers), sowing the seeds or seedlings (manually or using specialised machines), watering (either naturally or by irrigation), controlling the damage caused by pests (through monitoring and use of pesticides), harvesting the crop (manually or by using machines), processing (for either storage and/or transport), transporting to retailers, marketing to sell the produce, purchasing by customers and then consuming either with or without any cooking. The same is true for animal based food (meat, poultry, aquatic) – some bred on farms and others harvested from nature (forests, oceans, etc.). The chain involves four stages and several different activities in each stage as indicated below. Plant-based Foods Stage 1: Harvesting Stage 2: Harvested produce is either stored directly or after cleaning and sorting (in some cases, the storage involves a controlled environment). Stage 3: The food is transported to wholesalers who in turn sell to (i) retailers and (ii) other food businesses that process the raw material to produce (i) cooked food (e.g., cooked beans sold in cans, jams and condiments sold in bottles), (ii) frozen food (usually after some processing such for example, shelling the beans and peas, cutting carrots, cauliflower into smaller pieces, etc) or (iii) cooked and frozen (a complete meal in a packet) and then sell to retailers (green grocers and supermarkets) Stage 4: Customers (individual households or restaurants) buy the food from retailers and transport it to the kitchen for either cooking immediately or later on. Animal-based Foods Stage 1: The animals are caught and transported live to abattoir (slaughter house) in the case of land-based animals or killed immediately and transported to processing plants in the case of aquatic animals.15 Stage 2: The land-based animals are killed and processed to get rid of the skin and non-edible parts resulting in the carcass of the animal. The aquatic animals are processed and packaged. Stage 3: The carcasses and packaged items are transported to wholesalers who in turn sell to retailers (butchers) and other businesses as in the case of plant-based foods. The food businesses can produce cooked and/or frozen items for sale. Stage 4: Customers (individual households and restaurants) buy from retailers (butchers, supermarkets, etc) and transport it to the kitchen for cooking immediately or later on. The butcher can either sell the whole carcass or cut into primal 15 Some aquatic animals (for example, lobsters) need to be kept alive till the last stage. 7 and sub-primal cuts) or even marinate the cut meat before selling. The same applies to fish where and fish is either sold as whole or as cuts after processing.

1.6.2 Food and Nutrition

Any imbalances between the energy input (resulting from the food consumed) and the expended energy result in either starvation or excessive reserves of tissue in the form of body fat. Inadequate intake of various vitamins and minerals leads to diseases which can have far-reaching effects on health. A small sample is the following:. • Night blindness: Due to Vitamin A deficiency. • Scurvy: Due to Vitamin C deficiency (a major problem for mariners a few hundred years ago) • Rickets and Osteoporosis: Due to inadequate intake of Calcium • Kwashiorkor: A childhood disorder due to lack of dietary protein. Excesses in diet can produce negative impacts on health, as for example, obesity which in turn can lead to other health problems at a later stage. The science of nutrition deals with the understanding of how and why specific dietary aspects influence health and the nutritional aspects of different types of food and the cooking processes.

1.6.3 Food Technology

Technology16 has played a dominant role in all stages of the food chain (production, processing, preservation, packaging and distribution) over the last few hundred years. We list a few of the important ones. • Refrigerated trucks, containers and ships to transport food over long distances without affecting food safety. • Irrigation on a large scale. • Fertilisers to improve soil quality and pesticides to control the damage caused by pests. • Mechanised harvesting of plant food. • Automated production lines for processing animal and plant food. 16 Technology is the totality of goods, tools, processes, methods, techniques, procedures and services that are invented and put into some practical use. It includes whatever it takes to convert resources into products and services. A characteristic of technology is that every technology has a lifecycle with old technologies getting replaced by new ones. 8 Two other technologies that have an impact on the quality of food are gene technology and hormones to boost the rate of growth in animals. Gene Technology Humans have been manipulating the genetic make-up of plants and animals for countless generations using traditional cross breeding which involved selecting plants and animals with the most desirable characteristics (e.g. disease resistance, high yield, good meat quality, drought resistance, etc.) for breeding the next generation. Gene technology deals with techniques of genetic modification and involves new ways of identifying particular characteristics and transferring them between living organisms. It involves making a copy of a particular gene from the cells of a plant, animal or microbe, and inserting it into the cells of another organism to give the desired characteristic. Foods derived from genetically modified organisms are referred to as genetically modified (or GM) foods’. Use of Hormones Hormones are chemicals that animals produce naturally and are needed to control important body functions such as growth, development and reproduction. There are two types of hormones – (i) steroid hormones (which are active in the body when eaten, e.g., birth control pill) and protein hormones (which lose their ability to act in the body when eaten, e.g., insulin, which needs to be injected into the body to have an effect). Certain hormones accelerate the rate young animals gain weight and are used in the meat industry to reduce the waiting time and the amount of feed eaten by an animal before slaughter. Hormones are used in the dairy industry to increase milk production. Synthetic steroid hormones have been used for this purpose to increase the profitability in these industries.17 There are some concerns regarding the use of synthetic hormones. The two important ones are the following: • The hormone levels in slaughtered animals. If correct treatment and slaughter procedures are not followed the levels in the food can be high and this, in turn, can result in increased risk of cancer. • Because of increased milking, hormone-treated cows may become more prone to infection of the udders requiring greater doses of more antibiotics to treat the cows. This, in turn, can lead to more residues of antibiotics to remain in the milk. 17 There are six different kinds of steroid hormones that are currently approved by Food and Drug Authority (FDA) for use in food production (cattle and sheep but not for poultry or pigs) in the USA. In the European Union (EU) there has been a ban on all meat from animals treated with steroid growth hormones since 1989. 9

1.6.4 Food Safety

Food can be a source and transmitter of diseases from person to person as well as a medium for the growth of bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Food safety deals with techniques of handling, preparation and storage of food so as to prevent illnesses resulting from consuming food. Developed countries have more stringent standards for food preparation as opposed to developing countries where in worst cases there are safety problems even with water. Basic food safety includes: • Understanding the hazards associated with the main types of food, the growth of bacteria which can cause food poisoning and the conditions needed to prevent this occurring. • Avoiding problems associated with product packaging (e.g., leaks in vacuum packs) which can lead to food safety being compromised. • Preventing damage to food by pests (insects, rodents, etc.) • Controlling the spread of diseases by pests. • Safe methods of handling food in all stages from receiving, storing, preparation and cooking, cooling and re-heating, displaying, handling when serving customers, etc. • Avoiding causes of cross contamination. • Catering for customers who are particularly at risk such as people with allergies and intolerance. Food Legislation The parliament of the European Union (EU) has passed several food safety legislations in the form of directives and regulations which are mandatory for member states and must be incorporated into individual countries' national legislation. In the USA the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) deals with guidelines and procedures (legislated by the Congress) that regulate food in the retail and food service industry including restaurants, hospitals, nursing homes, etc. Other countries have similar laws relating to food safety. Food Labelling Food labelling is important in the context of food safety. The kind of information available depends on several factors as listed below: • The laws of the country or region (a wide variation from country to country) • Consumer movement (varies across countries) • Social and ethical behaviour of manufacturers The nutrition information label of packaged foods contain information regarding energy (kilojoules), protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugar and sodium (salt) contents in the product. Some provide information on the key ingredients in a food – e.g., the amount of strawberry is in strawberry yoghurt, meat in a meat pie. 10 There is also good news for allergy sufferers as all major allergens have to be declared, however small the amount. Food labels contain a range of other information such as • The ‘use by’ date. • All major allergens that allergy sufferers can avoid. • The storage requirements (e.g., whether the food must be refrigerated or kept frozen) for health and/or safety reasons. • Information on food additives – usually denoted by a number to some Food Standards. Finally, most countries have strict quarantine laws relating to the importation of plant and animal food with severe penalties for people breaching such laws.

1.6.5 Food Science

Food science is a study concerned with all technical aspects of food beginning with harvesting or slaughtering and ending with its cooking and consumption. It involves concepts and techniques from the following disciplines. • Biochemistry • Chemical engineering • Microbiology Food science deals with topics such as • The causes, prevention and communication dealing with food borne illnesses • The positive and negative interactions between micro-organisms and food • The causes and prevention of quality degradation • The industrial processes used to manufacture food • The invention of new food products • The study of how food is perceived by the consumer's senses • The molecular composition of food and the involvement of these molecules in chemical reactions • The study of both physical and chemical interactions in food in terms of physical and chemical principles applied to food systems, as well as the application of physicochemical techniques and instrumentation for the study and analysis of food. • The study of packaging to preserve food after it has been processed. • The scientific investigation of the cooking processes. • The physical aspects of foods (such as viscosity, creaminess, and texture) 11

1.6.6 Food Politics and Economics

Food politics deals with the political aspects of the control and regulation of food production and distribution. The focus is on resolving the disputes between the various parties involved and can be at various levels – global, regional, national, and still further down. The disputes arise for a variety of reasons and affected by factors and concerns relating to economics, environment, ethics, culture, health, etc.
The food supply is conditioned by the rules of the global food market and global geopolitics. These affect the decisions concerning the production and distribution of food at the national and local levels. Some of the challenging issues on the global food landscape are (i) famines, (ii) the politics of chronic hunger, (iii) the race between food production and population growth, (iv) international food aid, (iv) restrictions to food trade, (v) technologies used in food production, (vi) actions of large multi-national agribusiness to name a few. Politics in each of these areas has become polarized over the past decade by conflicting claims and accusations from advocates on all sides.
At the global (and regional) level the parties are the different nations and the main issue is economic. The main reasons for disputes are (i) subsidies paid to farmers and producers in different countries and, (ii) tariffs imposed that restrict competitive trade. The use of certain technological advances (e.g., use of hormones, genetic modification) to enhance the production of food has become a controversial political issue. Food power has been used directly to pressure nations for a desired change of policy.
At the national level the parties are the consumer population and producers (individuals, small families or big corporations). Often the interests of the parties are different. An example of this is producers inducing public to consume more than what is appropriate in order to increase their sales without due regards for the consumer health. This can be seen very clearly in developed countries where the obese population has been increasing steadily. Consumer movements (to promote better eating and more information) and more stringent regulations are opposed by producers as it does not serve their interests. The government plays a significant role through legislation to regulate the production, storage and distribution of food and the enforcement of these regulations. As a result the inspection of food has become a function of the government.

1.676 Food History

Broadly speaking history can be defined as a record of events over time. Each aspect of food has its own history and the list given below is a small illustrative sample. 12 • History of plants – origins, domestication, spread, etc.
• History of animals – origins, domestication, diffusion, etc.
• History of food consumed in different localities over time.
• History of cooking methods
• History of equipment and utensils for cooking
• History of food and culture Many disciplines have contributed to a better understanding of food history. • Evolutionary biology: Changes to plants and animals and their diffusion (or spread).
• Archaeology: Food consumed using modern techniques of analysing food residues in excavated utensils
• Anthropology: Interactions between food and culture through a historical perspective on a range of topics – a small illustrative sample is given below.
– (i) Ritual aspects of food. – (ii) Food taboos and food eaten to celebrate special occasions. – (iii) Communal eating. – (iv) Gender differences in relation to food over time. Some of the critical events in the history of food are: • Use of fire
• Settlements: Domestication of plants and animals in different localities
• Farming: Irrigation, fertilisers, etc.
• Invention of wheel (for transport on land) and sail (transport on water)
• Origins of civilisations and empires • Trade in food
• Spread of agriculture
These are discussed further in Chapter 20.

1.7 Scope and Focus of the Book

As the title indicates the book deals with the understanding and appreciating food. It starts with the basic constituents of food ingredients and their properties. It then looks at the transformation (processing and cooking) of the ingredients and how they affect the sensory perceptions (such as taste, aroma, texture, visual appeal, etc.) of the final products that are consumed. The understanding of these issues is the science (biology, chemistry and physics) of food.
The book gives an overview of the different ingredients that are consumed as food. These cover a wide variety of items from the animal and plant kingdoms and a few from the fungi kingdom. 13
As discussed earlier, the transformation process is both a science as well as an art. The different types of cuisines are a testament to the art aspect. We discuss the salient features of several different cuisines.
The book is aimed at people who either enjoy eating food and/or cooking food. It gives them a global view of the different issues involved so that they understand and appreciate food better. Figure 1.4 Art of cooking Ingredients Transformation Food science Dishes Fig. 1.4 Focus of the book

1.8 Book Structure

The book is structured in four parts as indicated below:
Part I: Science of Food and Cooking This part deals with the science of food and cooking and contains five chapters.
Part II: Basic Ingredients and Derived products This part deals with the basic ingredients of food and some of the derived products. Some of these can be consumed directly whilst others need to be cooked. In this part there are 13 chapters. Each chapter deals with a family of food ingredients and/or products derived from them. For each of the ingredients, we look at issues such as their proper scientific name and location in the biological classification, the region of origin, the salient characteristics from sensory perception perspective, the cooking methods and their effect on the flavour and mouthfeel.
Part III: Art of Cooking (Cuisines of the World) This part consists of 9 chapters. The first two chapters deal with cooking in general and the third looks at a global view of cooking. This is followed by six chapters where we look at the cuisines from different regions of the world and their sub-division into different national cuisines. In each of these chapters we highlight some key issues such as the main (or dominant) ingredients used in cooking, the main cooking techniques, and give a small sample of some well known classic dishes and the ingredients that go into it. 14
Part IV: Annotated Bibliography [1 chapter] The chapter lists the relevant references for each chapter along with notes to assist readers get additional information on topics discussed in the different chapters.

1.9 Outline of Chapters

A brief outline of the various chapters is as follows.

Chapter 2: Food Sources and Classification
Humans consume many different kinds of food the bulk of which is derived from living species – animals or plants. A proper scheme for classification is needed to group food items which are either similar or closely related. The classification can be either scientific or culinary. For later chapters of the book we employ both of these. This chapter outlines the food sources and their classification

Chapter 3 : Constituents of Food
The chapter deals with the constituents of food ingredients. There are four major constituents (carbohydrates, proteins, fat and water) and the two minor constituents (vitamins and minerals). The focus is the chemistry/biochemistry of the chemical compounds of these constituents. Basic knowledge of this is needed for a proper understanding of the characteristics of different ingredients and how they change under transformation (e.g., cooking).

Chapter 4: Sensory Perception and Quality of Food
The role sensory perceptions (such as appearance, smell, taste, etc.) play in the food that animals eat varies across the different species. For humans the two important attributes of sensory perceptions that play a dominant role in whether a particular food item is to be eaten or not are (i) flavour and (ii) mouthfeel. In this chapter we look at sensory perception of food by humans and give a brief overview of the various issues involved.

Chapter 5: Food Processing and Preservation
Humans consume a wide variety of food and they are harvested from farms, fields, forests, rivers, lakes and oceans. They need to be transported to markets for sale and need to be handled properly to ensure minimum degradation as quality of food plays an important role in the purchase and consumption of food. Proper food processing ensures this. Also, only a fraction of the food is consumed soon after it is harvested and the rest is stored for consumption at a later date. In these cases the food needs to be preserved either in its natural form or some transformed form so that it is suitable for consumption over a longer period. If not, the food gets spoilt and becomes unfit for consumption. This chapter deals with food processing and preservation. 15

Chapter 6: Cooking Food
The main aim of cooking is to create flavours, aromas and textures that do not occur naturally, so as to make the food more appealing to eat. It involves using a vast range of techniques and tools. Cooking deals with the application of heat to enhance flavours, aromas, textures, etc and is the focus of this chapter.

Chapter 7: Meat and Meat Products Yet to be written

Chapter 8: Aquatic Food Yet to be written

Chapter 9: Birds and Eggs Yet to be written

Chapter 10: Cereals
Cereal grains (or kernels) are the dry seeds of the grass family. There are several different kinds of cereal grains each with many varieties and cultivars. These can be broadly grouped into categories – major cereals (wheat, rice, and maize) and minor (millet, sorghum, barley, oats, rye, etc.). Also, there are other pseudo cereals (which are seeds from trees rather than grasses). Cereal grains need to be processed before they can be consumed. Some of the processing is common to all types of cereals and others specific to each type. As a result there is a variety of processed products for each type of cereal grain. In this chapter we look at different cereal grains and the products derived from them for human consumption.

Chapter 11: Legumes Yet to be written

Chapter 12: Flowers and Fruits Yet to be written

Chapter 13: Vegetables, and Mushrooms Yet to be written

Chapter 14: Seeds and Nuts Yet to be written

Chapter 15: Milk and Milk Products Yet to be written

Chapter 16: Fats and Oils Yet to be written 16

Chapter 17: Herbs and Spices Partly written

Chapter 18: Drinks Yet to be written Chapter 19: Other Ingredients Yet to be written

Chapter 20: A Global and Historical Perspective Partly written

Chapter 21: Cuisines

Chapter 22: Enhancing Sensory Characteristics of Dishes
Chapter 23: African Cuisines
African cuisine reflects indigenous traditions, as well as influences from Arabs, Europeans, and Asians. African food differs in different parts of Africa – Central, East, Horn, North and West - each having its own distinctive style.
Chapter 24: Americas Cuisines Yet to be written Chapter 25: Asian Cuisines Yet to be written Chapter 26: European Cuisines Yet to be written Chapter 27: Middle-eastern Cuisines Yet to be written Chapter 28: Other Cuisines Yet to be written Chapter29: Further Reading Yet to be written

References

[To be moved to Chapter 29] Davidson, A. (1999), Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University Press, Oxford 17 Kiple, K.F. and Ornelas, K.F. (2000), World History of Food, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Tannahil, R. (1998), Food in History, Three Rivers, New York Dalby, A. (2003), Food in the Ancient World from A-Z, Routledge, London General Davidson, A. (2006), The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University, Oxford Hartel, R.W and Hartel, A. (2008), Food Bites – The science of the Foods We Eat, Springer Verlag, New York Kiple, K.F. and Ornelas, K.C. (2000), The Cambridge History of Food (2 vol.), Cambridge University, Cambridge History Armesto, F.F. (xxxx), Near a Thousand Tables: A History of Food, Civitello, L. (2007), Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People, Flandrin, J.L., Montanari, M. and Sonnenfeld, A. (1999), Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present, Pilcher, J.M. (2006), Food in World History, Ritchie, C.I.A (1981), Food in Civilization: How History Has Been Affected by Human Tastes, Tannahill, R. (1989), Food in History Food Science Potter, N.N. and Hotchkiss, J.H. (1995), Food Science, Springer, New York Vaclavik, V.A. and Christian, E.W. (2008), Essentials of Food Science, Springer, New York Others Kilbourne, M.K. (1991), Poisons of the Past: Moulds, Epidemics, and History, Ward, S., Clifton, C. and Stacey, J, Donovan (??) (xxxx), The Gourmet Atlas: The History, Origin and Migration of Foods of the World, April 13, 2016